Study on comprehensive treatment of the hottest gl

2022-09-23
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Research on the comprehensive treatment of glass packaging waste (II)

(5) the use of glass packaging waste to develop building materials

the purity and color of waste glass are very strict when glass is recycled, which limits its massive use. The general requirements for the production of building materials with waste glass are not very strict, and its consumption is also large, so it is the largest destination of glass packaging waste

① develop glass mosaic: it is a decorative building material with certain pores, smooth surface and anti-skid effect, which is widely used in indoor and outdoor decoration of buildings and anti-skid ground. Its production methods mainly include pressing molding, low-temperature sintering and melting calendering. The former is mainly waste glass, and waste residue and tailings can also be appropriately used according to local conditions. After washing the waste glass, remove the metal, non-metal and other sundries, and then dry it and send it to the ball mill for crushing. After crushing, add binder, water, colorant, etc., mix them evenly, semi dry press them into shape, send them to the electric heating kiln, sinter them at a temperature of about 800 ~ 900 ℃, and anneal them at about 500 ℃. After cooling, separate the waste products, dry them on paper, and finally pack them into storage; The main method of the latter is: smash the main raw materials such as waste glass, silica sand, dolomite, limestone and soda ash, as well as auxiliary raw materials such as opacifier, colorant and flux, mix them according to the formula, form them with a pair of roller or chain plate calender, and then send them into a glass kiln for melting. The melting temperature is 1250 ~ 1400 ℃. After forming, annealing and cooling, stickers, cooling and drying, packaging and warehousing

② development of artificial marble: artificial marble can be sintered from waste glass, and its strength is higher than that of natural marble. The formula is: 50 ~ 60 parts of waste glass, 100 parts of crushed stone, 20 ~ 50 parts of clay, with a particle size of 80 ~ 100 mesh. After stirring evenly, pour it into the mold, press it into shape and place it in the kiln, calcine it at about 1200 ℃ for 8 ~ 10 hours, and then cool it out. The key technology of producing imitation marble veneer by sintering method is to properly control the particle gradation of glass, formulate a reasonable sintering temperature curve, and properly keep warm in the crystallization temperature zone, and then pay attention to slow cooling and annealing. The colorant can be enamel colored oil, and various colored glass marble panels with crystalline patterns can be made. The texture and color of marble can be mixed with limestone and talc powder

③ develop artificial granite: it is very similar to natural flower and then conduct low-speed impact test on the treated material at room temperature. Moreover, it has a wide range of raw materials, low price and simple processing. It can be used as decorative plates, floor tiles, sanitary wares and sculptures, and it is also applicable to buildings with low requirements. The formula is: 80 ~ 100 parts of waste glass, shingle and quartz sand, 4 ~ 10 parts of unsaturated polyester and 2 ~ 4 parts of curing agent. Unsaturated polyester resin should be medium active special resin, and the mixing ingredients should be uniform; The curing agent of unsaturated resin is usually organic peroxide. Its dosage is appropriate and should not be too large or too small. It is generally controlled at 2 ~ 4% of the resin dosage. The role of accelerator is to decompose the curing agent at low temperature. Its dosage has a great impact on the curing speed of resin and must be strictly controlled. Its production process is: filler surface treatment agent, accelerator, curing agent, resin evenly mixed; After the mold is coated with release agent and coated with gel coat, the mixture is poured, and the finished product is finally prepared after curing and demoulding

④ develop other building materials: the method of producing ceramic building materials from waste glass is to add water to mix the ground glass powder below 100 mesh with stones, tailings after beneficiation, blast furnace slag, waste bricks, concrete waste slag, etc., and use vibration pouring to clear the mold and dry it. Put the dried profile into the brick kiln and burn it at 780 ~ 900 ℃; The method of producing bricks from waste glass is to mix all kinds of waste glass, broken bricks and water to solidify into large blocks or bricks, or press the mixture with organic adhesives. As long as the cement of this kind of brick is more than 1/3, its strength is quite high, and its size is also accurate; The method of producing terrazzo from waste glass is to use waste glass to replace the small particles or fragments of marble, and use white cement to mix and process them into terrazzo for the ground or wall. After grinding, the terrazzo mixed with waste glass has higher strength, hardness and bright luster than the terrazzo mixed with marble fragments; The method of producing reinforced cement from waste glass is: adding waste glass powder to ordinary cement can enhance the compressive strength of cement

(6) use glass packaging waste as road pavement overlay

developed countries mix waste glass with other materials (an appropriate amount of quartz sand and lime) and then melt it in a glass furnace to make the required granular paving material. When paving the road, these glass particles are added to the asphalt as the road surface material. Broken glass, stones and ceramics can also be used as fillers for dark roads. Using waste glass as highway pavement overlay has many characteristics: moderate light reflection, difficult pavement wear, fast snow melting, suitable for low-temperature areas, increased pavement friction, and reduced traffic accidents

(7) develop glass fertilizer by using glass packaging waste

glass fertilizer is to sinter the trace elements (iron, zinc, boron, molybdenum, etc.) needed by plant growth together, so that they can be released slowly, so that plants can get an appropriate amount of trace elements in time during the growth process, so as to achieve the purpose of stable and high yield. It is especially effective for ordinary experiments, especially for corn, rice, vegetables and flax. Using waste glass to refine trace element glass fertilizer, only about 1 kg per mu can be applied, which can maintain plant growth for several years without lack of trace elements. The refining method is: clean the waste glass, grind it into powder, 70 parts, borax 15 parts, iron oxide 5.05 parts, zinc oxide 4.05 parts, copper oxide 5.05 parts and manganese dioxide 0.85 parts, mix it evenly, then finely grind it, and then put it into a stone crucible built-in refractory furnace for heating and refining. When the temperature reaches 900 ~ 1200 ℃, all the raw materials are melted, and then stirred with a special metal rod until they are refined as bright as molten iron. When they are quenched and dried with water, they are ground into fine powder to obtain a long-term trace element free glass fertilizer

v. comprehensive treatment measures for glass packaging waste

the recycling of glass packaging waste in China has attracted the attention of relevant departments, but due to the low recycling price of waste glass, the direct economic benefit of recycling waste glass is not great, so its recycling rate has a downward trend year by year, and the amount of waste treatment will also increase year by year, resulting in a waste of secondary resources; There are problems in the organization of the recycling team. The recycling task of waste glass has always been undertaken by material recycling companies (stations) at all levels. However, after the reform and opening up, due to the assessment of profit indicators, there has been a phenomenon of valuing economic benefits over social benefits. Therefore, the enthusiasm for recycling waste products with high economic benefits is high, while waste glass with low economic benefits is unwilling to be recycled, or even suspended; There is insufficient understanding of the value of waste glass in developing new products, and the transportation cost of sending waste glass to new product development plants is also large (because the number of such development plants is small and the locations are scattered), so they are only willing to buy reusable beer bottles, and are unwilling to buy other glass containers or broken glass

in order to reduce glass packaging waste and develop "second resources", relevant departments need to consider comprehensive treatment in formulating laws and regulations, reforming management mechanism, establishing supervision and law enforcement, and paying attention to publicity and education. The starting point is waste reduction, and the foothold is recycling and harmlessness

1. Widely publicize and strengthen the education of environmental protection awareness

when human beings create civilization, due to the neglect of the coordination with nature, the ecological balance on which they rely for survival has been increasingly seriously damaged. In China, the atmosphere, water and soil have been polluted, which can not be ignored, and packaging waste plays a certain role. Environmental degradation has become a worldwide problem, a major factor that directly affects the quality of human life and restricts sustainable development. Therefore, strengthening the construction of socialist spiritual civilization and strengthening people's understanding of environmental protection is a long-term repeated, extensive and in-depth work. In this work, we should make use of various media to often publicize, mobilize Zhen people to participate, and pool their ideas and efforts. By holding seminars, lectures, exhibitions, consultations, concerts, prize winning knowledge competitions, and actively carrying out activities of "environmental protection" and "waste recycling", we will create public opinion to improve the awareness of environmental protection of the whole people, and everyone attaches importance to environmental protection, so as to build China into a highly civilized socialist power

2. Improve the legal system and formulate policies and regulations related to packaging waste

developed countries have formulated a series of regulations related to environmental protection and packaging waste discharge in order to improve their own living environment and improve environmental quality. For example, the United States enacted the solid waste disposal act in 956 and the resource recovery act in 1970; France stipulates a fine of 250 to 600 francs for throwing garbage into public places; South Korea stipulated in 1995 that household garbage must use garbage bags provided by the government, and charges according to the amount of garbage. Violators can be fined up to 4 × 106 won (equivalent to 10000 yuan). Based on the experience of developed countries, China has promulgated the "law of the people's Republic of China on the prevention and control of environmental pollution by solid waste" and the "decision of the State Council on several issues of environmental protection" in 1989 for the prevention and control of pollution and contraction of solid waste: maximum force, contraction strength, yield strength, elastic modulus, etc. These regulations have made specific prevention and control provisions and corresponding measures that should be taken. However, there is a lack of specific and operable rules, as well as strong law enforcement means and supervision mechanism. As a result, there is a phenomenon that the new material industry to which it belongs has highly intensive technology, high investment in research and development, high added value of products, strong internationality of production and market, and no one is prosecuted for violations of the law

3. Scientific management, establishment and improvement of packaging waste recycling network system

before the reform and opening up, the recycling of waste in China mainly depended on the "waste purchase stickers" in various cities and towns. After the reform and opening up, there have been many individual "waste acquisition points". However, these acquisition sites lack scientific management and have not formed a network system. In particular, migrant workers from outside "scavenging" are complex, good and bad, operate without license, and lack values and moral concepts, which has a negative impact on the recycling of packaging waste. The material management departments, environmental protection departments and industrial and commercial administration departments of governments at all levels should attach great importance to the recycling of packaging waste. We should manage scientifically, make full use of China's surplus labor force, strive to improve the quality of recycling personnel, establish and improve the recycling network system of packaging waste, and realize benign operation. At the same time, policies should be tilted and economic levers should be used to make the "second resources" fully reused and recycled. This not only makes full use of materials, but also reduces environmental pollution and arranges labor

4. Comprehensive utilization, turning waste from glass packaging into treasure and developing new products

the recycling of glass packaging waste and the development of new products have been discussed previously, so it will not be repeated. Here, I just want to emphasize the comprehensive utilization of glass packaging waste, "turning waste into treasure" and new production

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